In the period subsequent to a TBI, occasionally health complications happen. In view of the fact that these complications are distinct medical problems that arise as a consequence of the injury, these do not belong to the types of TBI. The risk increases by means of the severity of the trauma even though complications are not common.
Including instantaneous seizures, hydrocephalus or post-traumatic ventricular enlargement, CSF leaks, infections, vascular injuries, cranial nerve injuries, pain, bed sores (decubitus ulcers), multiple organ system dysfunction in unconscious patients, and polytrauma (trauma to other parts of the body in addition to the brain) are the common complications of TBI.
A medical technician cautiously monitors a patient going through an electroencephalogram, a diagnostic method used to identify abnormalities with the use of brain waves.
In seizures that come about within the first 24 hours of the injury approximately 25 percent of patients with brain contusions or hematomas and around half of the entire patients in the midst of penetrating head injuries will develop immediate seizures.
Seizures taking place within 1 week following injury is the so-called early seizures in which immediate seizures raises the risk to it; but do not seem to be connected to the progression of post-traumatic epilepsy (intermittent seizures going on over 1 week subsequent to the preliminary trauma).
To take care of seizures in TBI patients, if the seizures persist, medical professionals use anticonvulsant prescriptions, in general.
When CSF builds up in the brain resulting in the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles (CSF filled the cavities in the brain) and an increase in the intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus or post-traumatic ventricular enlargement comes about.
Throughout the acute stage of TBI this condition can develop or may not emerge until a while. Characterized by deteriorating neurological outcome, impaired consciousness, behavioral changes, ataxia (lack of coordination or equilibrium), incontinence (inappropriate involuntary passage of urine), or indications of increased ICP, within the initial year of the injury.
As an effect of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hematoma, or other types of injuries, the said condition possibly will develop. For the original cause of the condition, clinical management includes shunting and draining of CSF as well as any other suitable treatment.
CSF leaks will take place when the skull fractures split the membranes casing the brain. A CSF fistula which is a tear amid the dura and the arachnoid membranes can cause CSF to escape out of the subarachnoid space into the subdural space identified as subdural hygroma.
To some type of head trauma, CSF can also leak from the nose and the ear out of the brain cavity which in turn may possibly cause infections such as meningitis if the fistula from where CSF leaks will additionally allow air and bacteria into the cavity.
When air unwontedly enters the intracranial cavity and becomes trapped in the subarachnoid space, Pneumocephalus happens.
A perilous complication of TBI is when an infection inside the intracranial cavity takes place. Outside of the dura, below the dura, below the arachnoid (meningitis), or within the space of the brain itself (abscess) is where CSF leaks can possibly occur.
Within some weeks from the initial trauma and consequence from skull fractures or any penetrating injuries most of these mentioned risks may possibly cause to develop infection.
To remove the infected tissue, if in case bacteria happened to invade the brain cavity, standard treatment entails the use of antibiotics and on some occasion surgery. With the potential to extend to the rest of the brain and nervous system, meningitis may be particularly dangerous.
In a few damage to the vascular system any damage to the head or brain generally results, which permits blood to the cells of the brain. Injury to small blood vessels can be restored by the body’s immune system; on the other hand, damage to larger vessels can effect in serious complications.
Either due to bleeding from the artery (hemorrhagic stroke) or through the development of a clot at the site of injury, called a thrombus or thrombosis , blocking blood circulation to the brain (ischemic stroke), any damage to one of the major arteries leading to the brain can cause a stroke.
In other portions of the head, blood clots additionally can develop. Through a blood clot that builds up in any of the tissue of one of the sinuses, or cavities, neighboring to the brain, symptoms like headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, paralysis on any side of the body, and semi-consciousness developing within more than a few days of a head injury, may come about.
While surgery is the ideal treatment for hemorrhagic stroke, thrombotic-ischemic strokes are treated by means of anticoagulants such as heparin and warfarin.
Including vasospasm and the formation of aneurysms are the other types of vascular injuries.
Any skull breakages can cause cranial nerve injuries, particularly at the base of the skull, that result in compressive cranial neuropathies. Of the 12 cranial nerves all but 3 project out from the brainstem to the head and face.
For the most part frequently injured cranial nerve in TBI is the so-called facial nerve, which is the seventh cranial nerve, and that damage to it can upshot in paralysis of facial muscles (the muscles of facial expression), the loss of sense of taste of the front part of the tongue, the dysfunction of the sublingual salivary glands, and the lacrimal glands. And also a small branch to the middle ear which regulates the tension on the ear ossicles.
In the period instantly following a TBI, pain is an ordinary symptom of TBI and can be a considerable complication for conscious patients.
Other appearances of pain can as well be problematic nevertheless headache is the most common type of pain suffered by TBI patients.
Including bed or pressure sores of the skin (decubitus ulcers), intermitting bladder infections, pneumonia or other life-threatening infections, and progressive multiple organ dysfunctions are the some serious complications for patients who are unconscious, in a coma, or in a vegetative condition.
In addition to the head and brain, most TBI patients possibly have injuries to other parts of the body. Polytrauma is what physicians called this. These injuries can complicate management of and recuperation from the TBI and necessitate instantaneous specialized care.
Including pulmonary (lung) failure; cardiovascular (heart) dysfunction by means of blunt chest trauma; gastrointestinal dysfunction; fluid and hormonal imbalances; and other remote complications, such as fractures, nerve injuries, deep vein thrombosis, extreme blood clotting, and infections are other medical complications that may be an adjunct to a TBI.
The majority TBI patients have injuries in other parts of the body besides head and brain injuries, a condition known as polytrauma. One of the several medical complications that may take place by means of TBI is the development of blood clots deep within a vein (shown image), referred as deep vein thrombosis.
Trauma victims frequently undergo an augmented metabolic rate or hypermetabolism, which in the amount of heat the body produces increases.
To keep organ systems functioning, the body redirects into heat the energy required, causing the malnourishment of other tissues and of course, resulting in “muscle wasting”.
Including neurogenic pulmonary edema (overload fluid in lung tissue), aspiration pneumonia (pneumonia caused by foreign object in the lungs), and fat and blood clots in the blood vessels of the lungs are some of the complications associated with pulmonary dysfunction.
Complicate the treatment of hypermetabolism and increased ICP are fluid and hormonal imbalances. Throughout the body hormonal problems can result from failure of the pituitary, the thyroid, and other significant glands.
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and hypothyroidism are the two most frequent hormonal complications of TBI.
Including injury to blood vessels and internal bleeding, and troubles with heart rate and blood circulation, blunt trauma to the chest can additionally cause cardiovascular problems. Injury to or dysfunction of the stomach, large or small intestines, and pancreas can moreover be a cause of trauma to the abdominal.
Erosive gastritis is a severe and one of the frequent complication of TBI, or inflammation and deterioration of stomach tissue. Increasing the possibility of aspiration pneumonia since this syndrome can cause bacterial formation in the stomach.
Including administration of medication by way of prophylactic gastric acid inhibitors to avoid the buildup of stomach acids and bacteria are tpart of he typical care of TBI patients.