The most common test is as follows: MRI, CT scans, PET scans, SPECT scan EEG, and lumbar puncture.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) causes the brain to remit high-frequency radio waves into the brain in an extremely magnetized field. To produce thin cross-sectional images of the brain the radio waves are analyzed by computer. MRI is safer than imaging methods that use X rays and presents the most thorough detailed images of the brain. On the other hand, for people who have pacemakers, metal clips, metal heart valves or other metal implants, the strong magnetic field may cause damage. An MRI cannot be used for them. MRI is additionally better at detecting hemosiderin – the remnants of old worn out/hemorrhaged blood.
Computed tomography, also known as CT scans (usually pronounced as “Cat Scans”) is a form of x-ray examination in which the x-ray source and detector (CT scanner) rotate around the object to be scanned. The data obtained can be used to construct three-dimensional images of structures of interest. From a lot of diverse angles this imaging method X-rays the brain; it produces a series of cross-sectional images while feeding the information into a computer. For diagnosing blood clots and brain tumors CT scan is particularly useful. In certain situations, it is a lot quicker process than magnetic resonance imaging. It is consequently beneficial and advantageous for people who are extremely ill. In detecting the presence of fresh blood in and around the brain the CAT scan is superior to the MRI.
PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography) also recognized as Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PECT) a technique in nuclear medicine for cross-sectional imaging that enables a noninvasive assessment and localization of metabolic activity to be made. To visualize radioactive tracers, this uses computed tomography, intravenously or by inhalation a radioactive substances are introduced into the brain. The PET scanner has detectors on each side of the patient to detect the simultaneous arrival of the signals that aid in the accuracy of the scanning. Brain functions such as cerebral metabolism, blood flow and volume, oxygen use, and the formation of neurotransmitters, PET scan can able to measure them accurately.
SPECT Scan (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) —a technique for observing an organ or part of the body using a gamma camera; images are produced subsequent to injecting a radioactive tracer. In this a radioactive chemical is introduced via intravenously (IV) to the patient comparable to PET scanning, however the radioactive chemical does not go through the brain and remains in the bloodstream. The SPECT scan maps the brain’s vascular supply, as a result. In view of the fact that damaged brain tissue generally shuts down its own blood supply, focal vascular defects on a SPECT scan are circumstantial substantiation of brain damage.
Wires are attached to the patient’s scalp for an EEG. (Electroencephalogram) monitors the brain’s electrical activity. To record the brain’s electrical activity through electroencephalography, these wires act like an antenna.
Lumbar Puncture – A lumbar puncture (also known as spinal tap) a procedure performed under local anesthesia in which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is withdrawn by a hollow needle inserted into the subarachnoid spaces in the region of the lower back. The cerebrospinal fluid obtained is examined for diagnostic purposes. If there is any bleeding in the brain and spinal cord areas, for instance, an analysis of the fluid can help tell doctors, determine and make diagnosis.